Heritage of Humanity in Latin America
HERITAGE OF HUMANITY is a title conferred by UNESCO, the United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture, to places of exceptional cultural or natural importance for the common heritage of humanity. Each site belongs to the country in which it is located, but it is considered in the interest of the international community and must be preserved for future generations.
Below, we present the ones declared in Latin America:
1. MACHU PICCHU (PERU)
The Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu is a protected area of Peru of more than 35 thousand hectares comprising the natural environment of the archaeological site of Machu Picchu, nestled in the rugged cloud forest of the yungas on the eastern slope of the Peruvian Andes and both sides of the Urubamba River, which runs in this section to the northwest.
2. POTOSÍ CITY (BOLIVIA)
Potosí was considered in the sixteenth century as the largest industrial complex in the world. The extraction of silver was carried out through a series of hydraulic mills. The city was inscribed in 1987 on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
3. HUASCARÁN NATIONAL PARK (PERU)
Declared a protected natural space on July 1, 1975, and as a Natural World Heritage Site in 1985, it is located in the Peruvian department of Ancash, famous for having 16 snow-capped peaks in its territory exceeding 6,000 meters above sea level. culminating of Peru and the entire intertropical zone: the snowy massif Huascarán from which it gets its name.
4. MANU NATIONAL PARK (PERU)
With a territory of 1 909 800 (hectare or square hectometre) it is divided into three large zones: the National Park, with 1 532 806; the Reserved Zone, with 257,000; and the Transition or Cultural Zone, with 120,000 ha. It also has the cataloging as a Biosphere Reserve.
5. ARCHAEOLOGICAL AREA OF CHAN CHAN (PERU)
It was declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco in 1986 and included in the List of World Heritage Sites in danger in the same year.
6. LINES AND GEOGLIFOS OF NAZCA AND PAMPAS DE JUMANA (PERU)
The Nazca lines are ancient geoglyphs found in the Pampas de Jumana, in the Nazca desert, between the towns of Nazca and Palpa (Peru). They were traced by the Nazca culture and are composed of several hundred figures that range from simple designs such as lines to complex zoomorphic, fitomorphic and geometric figures that appear traced on the earth's surface. Since 1994, the UNESCO Committee has registered the Nazca and Pampas de Jumana lines and geoglyphs as World Heritage Sites.
7. NATIONAL PARK OF THE RIVER ABISEO (PERU)
It was created on August 11, 1983, and in 1990 it was declared by Unesco as a Cultural and Natural Heritage of Humanity.
8. CUSCO CITY (PERU)
Located in the heart of the Andes, this city was proclaimed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1983. This is because Cuzco and the ancient towns still preserve vestiges of the Inca occupation of lands that generally preserve the archaeological heritage .
9. SACRED CITY OF CARAL-SUPE, LIMA (PERU)
Caral is considered by UNESCO as a Cultural Heritage of Humanity. It is located in the Supe Valley, 200 kilometers north of Lima (Peru), is approximately 5,000 years old and was the capital of Caral Civilization.
10. HISTORICAL CENTER OF THE CITY OF AREQUIPA (PERU)
The old town of the city or foundational checkerboard was declared by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in November 2000, and has since been called the Unesco Monumental Zone. The existing monuments are classified into four categories that are religious, military, civil-public and civil-domestic monuments.
11. HISTORICAL CENTER OF THE CITY OF LIMA (PERU)
It is the area of the city of Lima that covers its original location and its oldest buildings. The complex, located between the districts of Lima and Rimac, was declared a World Heritage Site in 1988 and is one of the most important tourist destinations in Peru.
12. IGUAZÚ NATIONAL PARK (ARGENTINA)
It is a protected area of Argentina created in 1934 with the objective of conserving the environment and the biodiversity of the Iguazú waterfalls, which were chosen as one of the "Seven natural wonders of the world". It is located entirely in the Iguazú department, bordering the Iguazú river in the extreme north of the province of Misiones.
13. LOS GLACIARES NATIONAL PARK (ARGENTINA)
Los Glaciares National Park was created in 1937, to preserve an extensive area of continental ice, Andean mountains, cold forests, glaciers and large lakes of glacial origin. It extends over 726 927 km located in the southwest of the Province of Santa Cruz de la Argentina.
Due to its spectacular beauty, its glaciological and geomorphological interest, and part of its endangered fauna, UNESCO declared it «World Heritage Site» in 1981.
14. OLD MAYAN CITY OF CALAKMUL (MEXICO)
Calakmul is a Mayan prehispanic urban center located in the southeast of the Mexican state of Campeche, in the Petén region of Campeche, in the core of the Calakmul biosphere reserve of more than 700,000 ha and a few kilometers from the border with Guatemala.
15. FUERTE DE SAMAIPATA (SUCRE) (BOLIVIA)
The Fort of Samaipata is an archaeological site in Bolivia, located a few kilometers from the town of Samaipata in the department of Santa Cruz, at an altitude of 1,950 meters above sea level. Declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1998, it is considered the greatest work of rock architecture in the world. Guarani archaeological remains have been found in the Fort of Samaipata.
16. NATIONAL PARK CANAIMA (VENEZUELA)
It extends over 30,000 km² to the border with Guyana and Brazil, because of its size it is considered the sixth largest national park in the world. About 65% of the park is occupied by rock plateaus called tepuyes. These constitute a unique biological medium, also presenting a great geological interest. Its steep cliffs and waterfalls (including Angel Falls, which is the highest waterfall in the world, at 1,002 m) form spectacular landscapes.
17. SIAN KA'AN (MEXICO)
The Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (Mayan language: Puerta del cielo, place where the sky is born) is a protected natural space that is located on the Caribbean coast of the state of Quintana Roo (Mexico). It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1987.
18. PREHISPANIC CITY OF TEOTIHUACAN (MEXICO)
Teotihuacan (Nahuatl: Teōtihuácān, 'Place where the gods were made, city of the gods') is the name given to what was one of the largest cities in Mesoamerica during the pre-Hispanic era.
19. PENÍNSULA VALDÉS (ARGENTINA)
It receives the largest breeding population of southern right whales, with more than 2000 listed by the Whale Conservation Institute and the Ocean Alliance. The region contains six nature reserves, and is considered one of the main and most important whale watching destinations on the planet, particularly around Puerto Pirámides and the city of Puerto Madryn. In addition, dolphins, dolphins, penguins, elephant seals and a variety of birds, among others, are sighted.
20. NATURAL PARKS OF ISCHIGUALASTO AND TALAMPAYA (ARGENTINA)
The parks extend from the desert on the western border of the Sierra Pampeanas of central Argentina; they contain the most complete continental fossil record known from the Triassic Period. The parks as a whole were included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in the year 2000.
21. TIAHUANACO: SPIRITUAL AND POLITICAL CENTER OF TIAHUANACO CULTURE (BOLIVIA)
On December 2, 2000, UNESCO added Tihuanaco to the list of Cultural Heritage of Humanity, due to the exceptional archaeological and cultural value of the lithic ruins of the city of Tiwanaku, from where a group of human beings contributed decisively in the investigation and development of construction technologies, agriculture, cattle raising, vegetable fiber weaving
22. THE ANTIGUA GUATEMALA (GUATEMALA)
It is renowned for its well preserved Spanish Renaissance architecture with Baroque facades of the New World, as well as a large number of church ruins. It has been designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979.
23. QUEBRADA DE HUMAHUACA (ARGENTINA)
Quebrada de Humahuaca is a deep and narrow groove of tectonic-fluvial origin located entirely in the province of Jujuy, in northwestern Argentina.
24. NATURAL NATIONAL PARK OF LOS KATÍOS (COLOMBIA)
It is a natural area that is located in the northwest of Colombia, covering 720 km², between 50 and 600 meters above sea level. It is part of the Darién region, which covers Panama and Colombia. It was created in 1973 on 520 km² and expanded in 1979 to its current area. It was declared a World Heritage Site in 1994. It is contiguous to Darién National Park, in Panama.
25. APPLE AND JESUITIC STAYS OF CÓRDOBA (ARGENTINA)
It includes: the Domestic Chapel, the National School of Monserrat, the Church of the Society of Jesus, the former headquarters of the National University of Córdoba and the Residence.
26. RESERVE OF THE BIOSPHERE OF RÍO PLÁTANO (HONDURAS)
Located on the Plátano River in La Mosquitia, the region on the Caribbean coast of Honduras. This reserve has been declared a World Heritage Site and Biosphere Reserve by Unesco, in the year 1980. The reserve covers both mountains and lowland tropical jungle, full of diverse flora and fauna, in which at least 2000 indigenous people continue to live in their traditional way.
27. GALÁPAGOS ISLANDS (ECUADOR)
The islands were formed 5 million years ago as a result of tectonic activity on the seabed. The current volcanic activity is still expanding the archipelago. The archipelago is one of the most active volcanic groups in the world. Many of the islands are only the tips of some volcanoes and show an advanced state of erosion.
28. PREHISPANIC CITY OF UXMAL (MEXICO)
Uxmal is an ancient Mayan city of the classical period. At present it is one of the most important archaeological sites of the Mayan culture, along with those of Chichén Itzá and Tikal. It is located in the municipality of Santa Elena in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. It is located in the so-called Puuc zone and is the most representative city of this architectural style.
29. NATIONAL PARK OF IGUAZÚ (BRAZIL)
It is a national park that functions as a conservation unit in the extreme west of the State of Paraná in Brazil. It was created on January 10, 1939 through decree law No. 1,035, has an area of 1,852.62 km². In 1986 it was classified by Unesco as a World Heritage Site.
30. COCO ISLAND (COSTA RICA)
Due to its size, isolation and conservation status, Coco Island is one of the most privileged natural sites in the world. With an important endemism and a singular biological diversity, the island can be cataloged as an ideal natural laboratory to carry out research on the evolution of the species and the monitoring of the environment in the long term.
31. CENTRAL AMAZONIA CONSERVATION COMPLEX (BRAZIL)
In Portuguese Jaú National Park, it is the largest jungle reserve in Brazil and the largest natural park in the world in intact tropical rainforest.
32. HARBOR, STRENGTHS AND MONUMENTAL SET OF CARTAGENA (COLOMBIA)
In 1984, Unesco included the historic center of the city of Cartagena de Indias, all its fortifications and the port within the list of World Heritage Sites.
33. CULTURAL LANDSCAPE CAFETERO DE COLOMBIA (COLOMBIA)
Also called the Coffee Triangle is a topographic region of Colombia, comprised in its extension by the departments of Caldas, Risaralda, Quindío, the north-eastern region of the department of Valle del Cauca, the entire region of southwest Antioquia. In 2011, UNESCO declared the Coffee Cultural Landscape World Heritage.
34. SANCTUARY OF WHALES OF EL VIZCAÍNO (MEXICO)
The sanctuary is located north of the state of Baja California Sur where certain unique ecosystems of high natural interest are found. The gray whale is found in the Ojo de Liebre lagoon and in San Ignacio, an ideal place to carry out its reproduction.
35. SAN AGUSTÍN ARCHAEOLOGICAL PARK (COLOMBIA)
The archaeological park of San Agustín is one of the most important archaeological sites in Colombia, located south of the Department of Huila and was declared in 1995 by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. It is the largest American necropolis.
36. NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL PARK OF TIERRADENTRO (COLOMBIA)
The National Archaeological Park of Tierradentro is an archaeological reserve of Colombia, declared in 1995 by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site for being an important reservoir of pre-Columbian culture. Tierradentro comprises an extensive area populated with hypogea and statues.
37. FAUNA AND FLORA DE MALPELO SANCTUARY (COLOMBIA)
It is one of the most visited islands of the Colombian Pacific every year by scientists and divers from around the world, and is permanently monitored by personnel of the Colombian National Navy, who looks after the conservation of the area avoiding the illegal and indiscriminate fishing of sharks.
38. CITY OF QUITO (ECUADOR)
It is the first declared city, next to Krakow in Poland, as a World Heritage Site by Unesco, on September 18, 1978.
By: Andrea Cuello Navarro